But you might be surprised by the industry hardest hit.
America's trade deficit with China has cost 3.4 million U.S.jobs since 2001 and is a major contributor to widening economic inequality,according toa study released Tuesday经济政策研究所。
Not surprisingly,the manufacturing sector has suffered the most because of America's lopsided trade relationship with China,losing 2.5 million jobs between 2001 and 2017.But every state and every congressional district has seen job loss as a direct result of the growing China trade deficit,and the study shows that the wider economy continues to be dragged down by the growing deficit.
"Some regions are devastated by layoffs and factory closings,while others are surviving but not growing the way they could be if new factories were opening and existing plants were hiring more workers,"authors Robert E.斯科特和赞恩·莫赫比伯写道。"This slowdown in manufacturing job generation also is contributing to stagnating wages… and widening income inequality.""
That's putting it mildly.Workers directly impacted by job loss saw their incomes dwindle by $37 billion per year between 2001 and 2011 alone,the study finds.But the wages of all non-college graduates dropped by $180 billion per year,as import competition from China led to job loss and shifted company profits to those at the top of the economic ladder.
While the data might conjure up images of rundown factories in the industrial midwest,it's a high-tech sector — the computer and electronic parts industry — that suffered the most job loss,2001年至2017年裁员120万人。And tech-friendly California saw the most total jobs lost because of the trade deficit: 562,500.Texas followed close behind,losing 314,000 jobs,followed by New York (183,500),Illinois (148,200) and Pennsylvania (136,100).
If you break the job loss data down as a share of total state employment,New Hampshire places first,losing 3.55 percent of its total jobs from 2001 to 2017 because of the deficit.Oregon comes in second,losing 3.36 percent of its jobs,followed by California,which lost 3.34 percent.您可以查看下表中的其余状态数据：
EPI报告是filled with detailed dataon how the China trade deficit is impacting various sectors of the economy,and it's worth a deeper dive.But as AAM's own Scott Paul注意,the main takeaway is that our current trade relationship with China — driven in large part by China's continued trade cheating — has had real-life consequences in all American communities.
"Millions of hard-working Americans have been sidelined by China's unfair trade practices,and also by our government's unwillingness to respond,"保罗说。
Several Members of Congress from both partiesalso weighed in the new report— and a prevailing theme was that far more must be done to balance America's trade relationship with China.
"Our manufacturing industry lifts families up with good wages,good benefits,以及职业发展的机会，"said Sen.Sherrod Brown (D-Ohio)."Our workers can compete with anyone — but they need a level playing field.这就是为什么针对像中国这样的国家的贸易执法对于防止更多的裁员至关重要。”"
共和党代表Robert Aderholt (Ala.) echoed Brown's sentiments."China is and has been a bad actor when it comes to trade deficits.Simply put,their markets should be as open to our products as our markets are to theirs,"他说。
You can find additional comments from Members of Congresshere,including statements from Sens.Tammy Baldwin（D-WIS）和Jeff Merkley（D-ORE）以及销售代表。Lou Barletta (R-Ala.),里克·克劳福德（R-Ark.），Debbie Dingell (D-Mich.),Marcy Kaptur（俄亥俄州）Dan Lipinski (D-Ill.),Rick Nolan (D-Minn.) and Pete Visclosky (D-Ind.).
你可以在这里阅读完整的报告,and stay tuned on the blog for additional insight from Scott Paul and Robert E.斯科特。